Historical Background

            “What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge and not knowledge in pursuit of the child.”
                       -George Bernard Shaw

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Source: http://Philosophypages.com




Plato

* Famous student of Socrates

* He said that all knowledge is innate at birth and is perfectible by experiential learning during growth.


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Source: http://www.fthbiosci.org
Aristotle

* Student of Plato


* He said that association among
ideas facilitated understanding and recall.

* According to him, comprehension was
aided
by contiguity, succession, similarity and contrast.


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Source: http://www.liberallifestyles.org
John Locke

* Hypothesis: People learn primarily from external forces.

* You cannot learn from being alone.
*
    He also conveyed the term Tabula Rasa which means ‘clean or blank slate’. This term states that at birth, we, humans, know nothing. And as we grow, the clean slate starts to be scribbled with knowledge and experience.

* Succession of simple impressions gives rise to complex ideas – association and reflection.


* Empiricism acts as the criterion for testing the validity of knowledge or experience. One can test his previous knowledge to gain new knowledge.


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Source: http://www.thestrengthsfoundation.org



John Amos Comenius

* He pioneered in age differences in

children’s ability to learn.

* Children learn more effectively when they

are involved with experiences that they
can assimilate.

 


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Source: http://www.stephenhicks.org
Jean Jacques Rousseau

* Proposed the new theory of Educational Pedagogy.


* Pedagogy is the scientific study on how children study or learn.
* His famous work was “Emile” (1762); he explained his views on the following:
      o   Benefits of health and physical exercise; and
    o   Belief that knowledge acquisition occurs through experience


* Education for children: natural inclinations, impulses and feelings.

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Source: http://www.atpps.blogspot.com

Johann Pestalozzi

* Known as the first Applied

Educational Psychologist.

* First educator who attempted to put

Rousseau’s teachings into practice.

* Taught children by letting them learn through activities and things that made them feel free to pursue their own interests and conclusions.


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Source: http://psychology.wikia.com



Herbert Spencer

       Promoted the Systematic Theory or Systems Theory. This theory states that everything viewed as a system of interrelated chain, wherein one move will and shall affect the other systems (physiological, psychological, social).

            In relation to education, he said that one must consider this chain for proper learning to occur.


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Source: http://www.nwlink.com
Johan Herbart

* Known as the Father of Scientific Pedagogy.
*Distinguished first instructional

process from subject matter.

* Herbartianism predicted that learning follows from building up sequences of ideas
important
to the individual which gave teachers a
semblance of theory of motivation.

* Apperception theory
for Herbart, it is the fundamental process in acquiring knowledge, wherein the perceived qualities of a new object, events or ideas are assimilated with and related to already existing knowledge.

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Source: fusional.net

Wilhelm Wundt

       A Herbartian Psychologist; he used Herbart’s Apperception theory as an inspiration which led him to the founding of the first Psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany on 1879.

     He was known as the Father of Modern Psychology.


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Source: http://www.david.peterzell.org

Edward Titchener

* Wundt’s student

* First eminent educational psychologist

to practice in America.

* Director of Psychology Laboratory at

Cornell University

  * He regarded the study of generalized mind to be the only legitimate purpose of psychological investigations.

  * He focused on higher mental processes such as concept formation and argued that introspection is a valid form for interpreting great variety of sensations and feelings.


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Source: http://www.zionistgoldreport.blogspot.com



John Dewey

 
      He gave rise to the Theory of Functionalism which encouraged developments in mental testing investigation of individual differences and studied of adaptive behavior.

     In a functionalist view, the more our mental ability to function, the more it is for us to learn.


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Source: http://www.child-development-guide.com
                               
                                            Edward Lee Thorndike

         Known as a connectionist because he sought to explain learning in forms of the Stimulus-Response (S-R) connections.

         He is credited with establishing the Law of Effect to account for the strengthening or weakening of S-R connections as a result of experience.

         In 1914, he completed his three-volume series, Educational Psychology.


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Source: http://www.spad1.wordpress.com





George Bernard Shaw

A prolific writer

“What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge and not knowledge in pursuit of the child.”


 


Comments

a.mankash
02/10/2014 12:07am

very well composed and expressed,which is sequential and understandable.

Reply



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