“Where the Id was, the Ego shall be.” – Sigmund Freud

The Levels of the Mental Life:
    A.     The Unconscious

     The unconscious is said to be the container of all drives, urges or instincts that are beyond human awareness (Feist & Feist, 2010). It was also said that it contains the sexual desires and aggression of men. Thoughts in the unconscious disguises in a dream, images, slips of the tongue (Freudian Slips) or neurotics symptoms.
     The unconscious is the level of the mental life where one can find fears, violent motives, immoral urges, selfish needs, irrational wishes, sexual desires and shameful experiences (Pandora’s Box of humans).

Origins of unconscious processes are:
1. Repression  - blocking out of anxiety or hidden experiences that are pushed into the unconscious as a defense mechanism against the pains of anxiety.
2. Phylogenetic Endowment - consists of inherited experiences that lie beyond an individual’s personal experiences. Feist & Feist (2010) explained this as the unconscious inherited images that have been passed down to us by our ancestors through many generations of repeated experience.

    B.      The Preconscious
     The preconscious level of mental life contains images from conscious perception and unconscious urges. It contains images that are not in awareness but that can become conscious either quite easily or with some level of difficulty (Feist & Feist, 2010) and it is where you can find the memories and stored knowledge.

    C.      The Conscious
     The last level of mental life is known as the conscious. Elements in the conscious stems from the conscious perception of the environment, preconscious and unconscious elements. Also, this is the level of mental life that is directly available to us, but it plays a relatively minor role in Freudian theory.

The conscious level of the mental life stems from:
1.      Perception of external stimuli that comes from our perceptual conscious system or
2.      from preconscious and unconscious after they have evaded censorship.

The Provinces of the Mind   

A.     Id (das Es or ‘It’)
Ψ     The id is governed by the pleasure principle thus its main objective is to seek pleasure and avoid pain without regard for what is proper or just.
Ψ     It is completely unconscious in nature.
Ψ     Operates through the primary processes.
Ψ     ‘What the id wants, the id gets.’
Ψ     It is said that the id is like a new-born baby. It is illogical, chaotic, unorganized and has no contact with reality.
Ψ     Id needs the ego to reach reality.

B.      Ego (das Ich or ‘I’)
Ψ     Ego is governed by the reality principle.
Ψ     Ego reconciles with the unrealistic demands of both the Id and the Superego and with the demands of the real or external world. (These three serve as the masters of Ego.)
Ψ     With the demands of its masters, the Ego has difficulties in thinking on what to do; thus making the Ego very anxious.
Ψ     To avoid pain caused by the anxiety, the Ego would use defense mechanisms.
Ψ     The Ego is said to be a product of the Id that is why it is hard for the Ego to refuse the unrealistic, pleasurable wants of the Id.
Ψ     Ego is the executive branch of personality, the decision maker.
Ψ     The Ego attempts to avoid displeasure and pain but needed to conform to the morals of the Superego and the reality of the external world.

C.      Superego (das Uber-Ich or ‘Above me or higher I’)
Ψ     Like the Id, Superego is very demanding and likewise, unrealistic.
Ψ     Superego is guided by the moralistic and idealistic principles.
Ψ     Has no contact with reality therefore it is unrealistic in its demands for perfection. Also, Superego needed the Ego to reach reality.
Ψ     This acts as the parental voice or conscience of the Ego whenever it makes a decision.
Ψ     Since Superego acts as the conscience, it is responsible for the experience of guilt.
Ψ     Judges the Ego’s acts.
Ψ     Superego orders the ego to control sexual and aggressive impulses of the Id through repression.

Parts of the Superego
1.      Ego Ideal – develops from experiences with rewards for proper behavior and tells us what we should do.
2.      Conscience – results from punishments for improper behavior and tells us what we should not do.

Ψ     Guilt is the result when the Ego acts contrary to the standard and principles of the Superego. (Function of the conscience)
Ψ     Feelings of inferiority arise when the Ego is unable to meet Superego’s standard for perfection. (Function of the Ego Ideal)

            People are motivated to seek pleasure and to reduce tension and anxiety. Motivation is derived from the physical and psychological part of the person.

Instincts/ Drives/ Impulse (from the German ‘Trieb’)
- an internal drive or impulse that operates as a constant motivational force
- it originates from the Id, but eventually become under control by the ego.

            Characteristics of a drive:
Ψ     Impetus – amount of force the instinct exerts.
Ψ     Source – region of the body in a state of excitation or tension.
Ψ     Aim – is to seek pleasure by narrowing the state of excitation or tension.
Ψ     Object – person or object that can satisfy the aim.

            A hungry infant cries.
·         The hunger (impetus) arises in the body of the child.
·         Energized by the libido.
·         The goal is sucking the nipple (source) and receives nourishment.
·         (Aim) Reduce hunger.
·         (Object) The caring mother.

Kinds of Instincts
A.     Life Instinct
EROS (The sexual instinct or drive)

- The life drive is directed by the LIBIDO (sexual energy… can also be anything that can direct action)
- Libido is the force by which the sexual instinct works.
- This instinct perpetuates the life of the individual and the life of the species.
- Its aim is to bring pleasure within a person by removing the state of sexual excitation.
- Not limited to the ‘genital pleasure’. (Ex: Thumb sucking for a child.)

            Erogenous zones – the regions of the body that is capable of producing sexual pleasure.
·         Genitals
·         Anus
·         Mouth

Forms of Life Instincts / Sex / Manifestations of Eros
    Ψ     Narcissism – excessive love of one’s self. From the Greek story of Narcissus.
Kinds of Narcissism:
        o   Primary Narcissism (self-love) – the universal self-centeredness of infants.
        o   Secondary Narcissism – A moderate degree of self love that occurs during puberty.

    Ψ     Love
-- is accompanied by Narcissistic tendencies (people love someone who serves as an ideal or model of what they would like to be).        
– is the investing of the libido on an external person or object.
-- is regarded as a reciprocal state of attractions.

            Kinds of Love:
o   Self-love
o   Parental love (aim-inhibited love)
o   Fictional love

Note: Love and Narcissism are related with each other.

    Ψ     Sadism
-- is the need for sexual pleasure by inflicting pain or humiliation to others.
-- is a common need and exists to some extent in all sexual relationships.
-- its extreme point is sexual perversion

    Ψ     Masochism
-- The need for sexual pleasure by inflicting pain or humiliation either by themselves or by others to oneself.

o   Sexual perversion is a form of sadism and masochism that is taken to an extreme point.
o   Sadism and masochism demonstrates the life instinct and the death instinct as a combination.
o   ‘The goal of life is ultimately death.’

B.      Death Instinct
THANATOS (The destructive or aggressive instinct)

- The destructive/ aggressive/ death drive is directed by MORTIDO.
- aims to bring the organism into a state of calmness… ultimately into non-existence.
Aggression – the result of the flexibility of the death instinct.
·         Life and death instincts must submit to the demands of the real world which prevents an unopposed fulfillment of sex and or aggression.
·         This frequently creates anxiety which relegates many sexual and destructive desires to the realm of unconscious.

- is a felt, affective, unpleasant state accompanied by physical sensation that warns a person from an impending danger.
‘Human beings are always anxious.’ –Sigmund Freud.

    Kinds of Anxiety
Ψ     Neurotic anxiety (known as nervous anxiety) – an apprehension about an unknown danger.
Ψ     Moral anxiety – an outgrowth of conflict between our realistic needs and the dictates of our superego.
Ψ     Realistic anxiety – closely related to fear; an unpleasant nonspecific feeling involving possible danger.

NOTE: Anxiety serves as an ego-preserving mechanism because it signals us from an impending danger thus we ‘tend’ to prepare ourselves from the possibilities of the danger to happen.

The ego deals with the demands of reality, id and superego so it defends itself from anxiety. Defense mechanisms are temporary solutions to the onset attack of pain/ anxiety caused by the three masters. Defense mechanisms are:
·         are irrational/ illogical
·         like the id, unconscious.
·         established by the ego to avoid dealing directly with the demands of our instincts and also defend ourselves

Principal defense mechanisms
1.      Repression (primary defense mechanism)
- forces threatening feelings into the unconscious.
- also called as motivated forgetting (active during traumas, phobias)
***What happens to the repressed impulses?
            - goes to the unconscious and remains there unchanged.
- forces its way out into consciousness in an altered form which would bring forth an unbearable anxiety
- finds expressions in a displaced or disguised form (Freudian slips or dreams)

2.      Undoing – the ego attempts to get rid of unpleasant experiences and the consequences through compulsive ceremonial behavior (washing of hands).

3.      Isolation – the ego attempts to isolate experience by using obsessive thoughts to block out any effect immediately.

4.      Reaction Formation – one way for repressed impulses to reach consciousness is through adopting a disguised form that is directly opposite the original impulse in an exaggerated form.

5.      Fixation
- When the process of going into the next stage of development becomes too anxiety-provoking, the ego will remain at the present stage.
- The person remains at a current stage of development where there is pleasure.
- ‘more permanent’ than regression

6.      Regression
- Once the libido passed a developmental stage, it may, during at times of stress and anxiety, revert back to the earlier stage and repeat activities which were once successful or at least pleasurable.

7.      Displacement – redirecting of an impulse into a substitute target, a symbolic substitute.
*Turning against oneself – the person becomes their own substitute and sometimes hurt themselves.

8.      Projection
- attribution of unwanted impulses to an external object or person
- seeing in other unacceptable feelings or tendencies that actually resides in their own unconscious.

9.      Introjection (identification)
- incorporation of positive qualities of another person into their own ego.
- taking into your own personality the characteristics of someone else because doing so solves some emotional difficulty.
*** Identification with our aggressor
            - a version of introjections
            - adaptation of negative or feared traits

10.  Sublimation – repression of the genital aim of the Eros by substituting a cultural or social aim. This is the transformation of an unacceptable impulse whether it be sex, anger or fears into a socially acceptable and even productive form (Ex: Robinhood complex).

11.  Denial – blocking of external events from awareness. If a situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to accept it (Ex: When children’s imagination transforms a threatening object or person into a less threatening one.)

12.  Asceticism – renunciation of basic needs or simple living or chastity.

13.  Rationalization – characteristic distortion of the ‘facts’ to make an event or an impulse less threatening.
* Sour graping – attribution of a negative character to something so that it will look less good.
* Sweet lemon – looking for something positive in things that acquire negative attributions.

14.  Intellectualization – explaining something to justify the act.

·         Defense mechanisms are universal and like the Id, irrational; they protect the ego from anxiety.
·         Among the defense mechanisms discussed, the only beneficial to the individual and the society is SUBLIMATION.

            A. Infantile Period
            -  first 4 or 5 years of life are the most crucial because it is when personality forms.
            - Freud assumed that infants possess a sexual life and go through a period of pre-genital sexual development.
            - Consists of 3 phases:
        a. Oral
           - the infant’s pleasure is centered on the mouth
           - occurs from birth to 18 months
                       - the oral phase contains 2 subdivisions: the early oral stage (sucking) and the oral sadistic (biting).
- POSITIVE ACHIEVEMENTS from gratifications include trust, security, optimism and vitality.
- NEGATIVE OUTCOMES from frustration include mistrust, insecurity and pessimism.

NOTE: As children become adults, the mouth continuous to be an erogenous zone.

        b. Anal
           -anus emerges as a sexually pleasurable zone; occurs during 2-4 years of age
         - subdivided into 2:

o   Early Anal Period – children receive satisfaction by destroying or losing objects.
o   Late Anal Period – children sometimes take a friendly interest toward their feces, an interest that stems from erotic pleasure of defecating.

*Anal Character – people who continue to receive erotic satisfaction by keeping and possessing objects and arranging them in an excessively neat and orderly fashion.   
* Anal Triad – orderliness, stinginess and obstinacy which typifies the adult anal character.

            - POSITIVE ACHIEVEMENTS from gratification include autonomy, pride and confidence.
            - NEGATIVE OUTCOMES from frustration include shame, doubt, and rigidity.

          c. Phallic
              - last leg of infantile period (4-6 years of age); the child starts to differentiate or determine the sex organ.
               - looks at each other’s genitalia

Not all girls transfer sexual interest onto their father and develop hostility toward the mother, so they rebel in three ways:
1.      Give up their sexuality and develop an intense hostility to the mother.
2.      Cling to their masculinity hoping for a penis and fantasizing being a man.
3.      Take the father as a sexual choice and undergo simple Oedipus complex (normal development).

- POSITIVE ACHIEVEMENTS from gratification include sex-relevant role, modeling, initiative, purpose and ethical sense..
- NEGATIVE OUTCOMES from failure to identify with parents include guilt.

            B. Latency Period
            - A child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills.

            C. Genital Period
            - Time of sexual reawakening (during puberty)
            - expected to identify with their own sexual organ
            - adolescents give up autoeroticism
            - vagina obtains the same status for them that the male organ had for them during infancy and parallel to this, boys now see the female organ as a sought-after object.

            D. Maturity
            - Psychological maturity is the stage attained after a person has passed through the earlier development period in an ideal manner.

4. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (Causes of Psychosexual Disorders)
A. Infantile Sexuality – unresolved issues in the psychosexual stages of development affect the future behavior of the child.

B. Fixation… Regression
·         Children must resolve certain challenges or crises
·         small amount of libido are used up resolving each crises
·         this still leaves an adequate amount of psychic energy to operate in adult personality.
·         This results in tying up or fixating a large amount of libido in that certain stage – thus fixation occurs.
·         Consequently, the ego has less energy available for normal adult functioning.
·         As such, the adult expresses characteristics reminiscent of the stage

C.     Cathexis and anti-cathexis
    Ψ     Cathexis refers to the relationship or connection between a need and an object that satisfies the need.
    Ψ     Anti-cathexis is the inhibition of an impulse by either the ego or the superego.

D. Anxiety

E. Neuroticism

5. CHANGE (Psychoanalysis)

               “Where the Id was, the Ego shall be.” – Sigmund Freud

What is Psychoanalysis?
            Psychoanalysis is often referred to as a therapy in a Freudian point of view.

What makes psychoanalysis interesting?
Ψ     Sex and aggression
Ψ     Continuing Popularity
Ψ     Freud’s brilliant command of language
Ψ     Removal of the crippling life pattern
Ψ     Assumption of resuming a normal mental life
Ψ     Methods for learning about the mind
Ψ     Seeks to know how human mind works

Early Therapeutic Technique
·         extracts the repressed childhood memories by using active approach.
·         Freud’s patients reproduced the childhood scenes in which they were sexually seduced by some adults or their parents (seduction theory). He found out that these scenes of seduction have never taken place; such that he suggested these ideas on the patient.

Late Therapeutic Technique
·         The primary goal was to uncover repressed memories which work by transforming what is unconscious into what is conscious.
o   Free Association – patients are required to verbalize every thought that come to their mind (cathexis).

o   Transference – always expected by the therapist; strong sexual or aggressive feeling that patients develop toward their analyst during the course of treatment – can be referred to as resistance to change.

§  Counter transference must be avoided.

·         For the analytic treatment to be successful:

1.      All libido is forced from the symptoms into the transference and concentrate there.

2.      The struggle is waged around this new object and the libido is liberated from it (fixated stage).
·         Limitations of Psychoanalysis
o   Treatment is not as effective with psychoses or with constitutional illness.
o   Not all old memories can or should be brought to the conscious.

Dream Analysis
·         Used to transform the manifest content of dreams to the more important latent content.

o   Manifest content of dream – called as the actual dream itself.
o   Latent content of dream
- Nearly all dreams are wish fulfillments.
- Principle of Repetition Compulsion – repeatedly dream of frightening or traumatic experiences, an exception to the rule that dreams are with fulfillments is found in the patient’s suffering.
        ·         For dreams to become conscious:
                    o   condensation or displacement
                    o   inhibiting or reversing the dreamer’s affect

        ·         Dream interpretation methods:
o   To ask the patients to relate their dream and all their associations to it.
o   Using dream symbols.
        ·         Dream Analysis is the “Royal Road” to knowledge of the unconscious.
        ·         Anxiety dreams offer no contradiction without the rule that dreams are wish fulfillments:
o   Exceptions are: embarrassment of nakedness, dreams of the death of a beloved person, dreams of failing an examination

Freudian Slips

– slips of pen, misreading, incorrect hearing, temporary forgetting of names, intentions and the misplacing of object, all of which are unconscious wishes.
- It is also called as parapraxes.

The intentions of the unconscious supplant the weaker intentions of the preconscious; thereby revealing the true purpose of the ego.

Feist, J., & Feist, G. J. (2010). Theories of Personality (7th ed.). Philippines: McGraw-Hill.

Reber, A. S., Rhianon, A., & Reber, E. S. (2009). Penguin dictionary of psychology (4th Edition ed.). London, England: Penguin Books Ltd.

 Historical Background

            “What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge and not knowledge in pursuit of the child.”
                       -George Bernard Shaw

Source: http://Philosophypages.com


* Famous student of Socrates

* He said that all knowledge is innate at birth and is perfectible by experiential learning during growth.

Source: http://www.fthbiosci.org

* Student of Plato

* He said that association among
ideas facilitated understanding and recall.

* According to him, comprehension was
by contiguity, succession, similarity and contrast.

Source: http://www.liberallifestyles.org
John Locke

* Hypothesis: People learn primarily from external forces.

* You cannot learn from being alone.
    He also conveyed the term Tabula Rasa which means ‘clean or blank slate’. This term states that at birth, we, humans, know nothing. And as we grow, the clean slate starts to be scribbled with knowledge and experience.

* Succession of simple impressions gives rise to complex ideas – association and reflection.

* Empiricism acts as the criterion for testing the validity of knowledge or experience. One can test his previous knowledge to gain new knowledge.

Source: http://www.thestrengthsfoundation.org

John Amos Comenius

* He pioneered in age differences in

children’s ability to learn.

* Children learn more effectively when they

are involved with experiences that they
can assimilate.


Source: http://www.stephenhicks.org
Jean Jacques Rousseau

* Proposed the new theory of Educational Pedagogy.

* Pedagogy is the scientific study on how children study or learn.
* His famous work was “Emile” (1762); he explained his views on the following:
      o   Benefits of health and physical exercise; and
    o   Belief that knowledge acquisition occurs through experience

* Education for children: natural inclinations, impulses and feelings.

Source: http://www.atpps.blogspot.com

Johann Pestalozzi

* Known as the first Applied

Educational Psychologist.

* First educator who attempted to put

Rousseau’s teachings into practice.

* Taught children by letting them learn through activities and things that made them feel free to pursue their own interests and conclusions.

Source: http://psychology.wikia.com

Herbert Spencer

       Promoted the Systematic Theory or Systems Theory. This theory states that everything viewed as a system of interrelated chain, wherein one move will and shall affect the other systems (physiological, psychological, social).

            In relation to education, he said that one must consider this chain for proper learning to occur.

Source: http://www.nwlink.com
Johan Herbart

* Known as the Father of Scientific Pedagogy.
*Distinguished first instructional

process from subject matter.

* Herbartianism predicted that learning follows from building up sequences of ideas
to the individual which gave teachers a
semblance of theory of motivation.

* Apperception theory
for Herbart, it is the fundamental process in acquiring knowledge, wherein the perceived qualities of a new object, events or ideas are assimilated with and related to already existing knowledge.

Source: fusional.net

Wilhelm Wundt

       A Herbartian Psychologist; he used Herbart’s Apperception theory as an inspiration which led him to the founding of the first Psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany on 1879.

     He was known as the Father of Modern Psychology.

Source: http://www.david.peterzell.org

Edward Titchener

* Wundt’s student

* First eminent educational psychologist

to practice in America.

* Director of Psychology Laboratory at

Cornell University

  * He regarded the study of generalized mind to be the only legitimate purpose of psychological investigations.

  * He focused on higher mental processes such as concept formation and argued that introspection is a valid form for interpreting great variety of sensations and feelings.

Source: http://www.zionistgoldreport.blogspot.com

John Dewey

      He gave rise to the Theory of Functionalism which encouraged developments in mental testing investigation of individual differences and studied of adaptive behavior.

     In a functionalist view, the more our mental ability to function, the more it is for us to learn.

Source: http://www.child-development-guide.com
                                            Edward Lee Thorndike

         Known as a connectionist because he sought to explain learning in forms of the Stimulus-Response (S-R) connections.

         He is credited with establishing the Law of Effect to account for the strengthening or weakening of S-R connections as a result of experience.

         In 1914, he completed his three-volume series, Educational Psychology.

Source: http://www.spad1.wordpress.com

George Bernard Shaw

A prolific writer

“What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge and not knowledge in pursuit of the child.”

This post is under the process of referencing. 
Source: http://colectivopsyne.blogspot.com/2010/06/caracteristicas-de-la-conciencia.html
Consciousness- a person's awareness of everything that is going on his surrounding which is used to organize behavior.

Waking consciousness- a person's thoughts, feelings and sensations are organized and clear. In waking   consciousness, one is said to be alert.

Altered state of consciousness- occurs when there is a shift in the quality of mental activity.



A.1. Terms/Concepts
  • Biological rhythms- natural cycles of activity that the body must go through.
  • Circadian rhythms- body rhythms that occur over a 24-hour period. (sleep-wake cycle)
  • Hypothalamus-controls the sleep-wake cycle; influences the glandular system.
  • Glandular system-is a communication network that regulates basic drives and emotions, promotes growth and sexual identity, controls body temperature, assists in the repair of broken tissue and helps generate energy.
  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus [SCN]- found in the hypothalamus that is sensitive to light. It tells the pineal gland when to produce melatonin. 
  • Pineal gland- an  endocrine gland found in vertebrates that is the source of melatonin. The pineal gland develops from the roof of the diencephalon, a section of the brain. In some lower vertebrates the gland has a well-developed eye-like structure; in others, though not organized as an eye, it functions as a light receptor. The technical term for this is epiphysis.
  • Pituitary gland- also referred to as the "master gland". It administers the functions of the endocrine system. The medical term for this is hypophysis.
  • Melatonin- a hormone derived from tryptophan that regulates circadian rhythm (sleep cycle) and is secreted by the pineal gland that tells people when to sleep. (↑- sleepy. ↓- awake).
  • Jet lag- a condition wherein the body's circadian rhythm is disrupted due to traveling into another time zone.
  • Serotonin- a neurotransmitter associated with sleepiness. (↑- intense feeling of sleepiness).
  • Body temperature- (↑- more active and awake, more alert. ↓- sleepier and less active).
  • Microsleeps- brief sleeps that can last for seconds.
  • Sleep deprivation- any significant loss of sleep that results to problems in concentration and irritability.
Source: http://humanityhealing.net/2010/09/pineal-gland-the-transcendental-gateway/
Figure 1. Medial View of the                    Brain.

    This figure shows the hypothalamus, SCN, pineal gland and the pituitary gland - all involved in the sleep-wake cycle.

A.2. Theories of Sleep
  • Adaptive Theory of Sleep- according to the evolutionary approach, animals and humans have evolved a sleeping pattern to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are active.
  • Restorative Theory of Sleep- states that sleep is needed to the physical health of the body wherein bodily damages are repaired when one is sleeping.
A.3. Kinds of Sleep
  • Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep)- active type of sleep wherein most dreams occur.
  • Non- Rapid Eye Movement (NREM Sleep)- deeper and more restful kind of sleep.
***Stages of NREM Sleep:

        Stage 1: Light Sleep- alpha wave activity fades and theta activity increases.
                * Hypnagogic images- vivid visual events or images that seems to be realistic but are most                     often seen as flashes of light.
                * Hypnopompic images- images seen as people are about to wake up.
                * Hypnic jerk- the "falling" sensation that one feels when one is in relaxed state of sleeping.

        Stage 2: Sleep Spindles- theta waves are dominant in this stage; this stage shows the first sign of             sleep spindles (can be seen in an EEG), brief burst of activity.
                * People who are awaken in this stage are aware that they have gone to sleep.

        Stage 3 and 4: Delta Waves- delta waves make up 20-50% of brain wave pattern; if the delta waves             become more than 50% then it is the stage 4 of NREM sleep. In stage 4, the person is hard to                 awaken.
                * Electroencephalograph [EEG]- a machine that allows a scientist to see the brain wave                         activity;determines what type of sleep the person has entered.
               * Beta waves- a wave pattern shown when a person is wide awake and mentally active; very                     small and very fast waves.
               * Alpha waves- a wave pattern that indicates drowsiness; these waves are slightly larger and                     slower than Beta waves.
                * Theta waves-replace the alpha waves; much slower and larger than alpha waves.
                * Delta waves- slowest and largest wave; shown when the person is in deepest sleep.
               * REM Paralysis- a condition wherein the voluntary muscles are paralyzed during REM sleep                     making the body unable to react on dreams.
                * REM Rebound-an increased amount of REM sleep for the next night due to deprived sleep                     the night before.

A.4. Sleep Disorders
  • Nightmares- bad dreams that occur during REM sleep.
  • REM Behavior Disorder- a serious condition wherein a person would act out his nightmares; happens due to failure of the brain to inhibit voluntary muscles.
  • Somnambulism / Sleepwalking- a person acts out an episode of his dream probably a walking or moving around episode of his dream.
  • Night terrors- panic experience while sound asleep, accompanied by moveents thus somewhat occur in NREM sleep.
  • Insomnia- the inability to sleep, stay asleep or get a good sleep.
  • Sleep Apnea- a person stops breathing for a bout a minute or two.
  • Narcolepsy- a disorder which makes a person fall into REM sleep without warning or drowsiness.
  • Hypersomnia- excessive day sleep.
  • Enuresis-urinating while asleep.
  • Cataplexy- sudden loss of muscle tone.
  • Restless leg syndrome- painful cramps in calf or foot muscles.
  • Circadian rhythm disorders- disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle such as jet lag and shift of work.
     Below is a video of a puppy having a night terror. As you know, animals, not only humans have the capability to undergone things like the different sleep disorders. An organism experiencing a night terror usually screams, panics, a sometimes run around the house. In humans, babies are often subjected to this disorder due to the growth and development of certain brain structures and neuronal myelinization (the process of coating the neurons axon with myelin sheath).

B.1.Terms /  Concepts
     According to Sigmund Freud, known as the Father of Psychoanalysis, the content or meaning of dreams are classified into two:
  • Manifest content of dream- this is the actual dream itself. It has no other meaning aside from what he person saw in his dream. Regardless of what he wants / thinks in reality.
  • Latent content of dream- this is the hidden or symbolic meaning of the dream. (Ex. A person dreams about having sex with the person he / she hated the most. Freud's explanation to this is that the person who dreamed about it must have hated the person for so long and and scene of having sex with the hated person implies that the only thing to make the person befriend with the hated one is through an intimate relation so that their relation wouldn't be broken.)
B.2. Dream Theories
  • Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis- a dream theory which states that dreams are simply the brain's way of explaining random neural activity while sleeping. According to this, when one is asleep, brain signals are random yet the brain interprets theses signals. Also, the frontal lobes, responsible in the voluntary movements, are shut down during dreaming. Hence, some of the dreams are thereby acted as said in the sleep disorders. Signals coming from the pons are sent to the cortex which interprets the signals as dreams.
  • Activation-Information-Mode-Model (AIM)- says that the information accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.

C.1.Terms /  Concepts
  • Hypnosis- a state of consciousness wherein the person is susceptible to suggestion.
  • Hypnotic susceptibility- the degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject, often makes use of series of ordered suggestions.
  • Basic suggestion effect- the tendency to act as though their behavior is automatic and out of their control.
C.2. Theories of Hypnosis
  • Dissociation- splitting of conscious awareness; one part of mind is aware of actions taking place and the other is not.
  • Social-Cognitive Theory- assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them.
     - putting a person to sleep does not induce hypnosis
     - hypnosis has been successfully used to reduce sensation and pain
     - hypnosis can create amnesia for whatever happens during the hypnotic session, at least for a short time.
     - hypnosis can relieve pain by allowing a person to remove conscious attention from the pain
     - hypnosis can alter sensory perceptions


D.1. Terms /  Concepts
  • Psychoactive drugs- these are drugs that can alter thinking, perception, memory, or combination of those abilities.
  • Drug tolerance- the continued use of drug, larger and larger doses of the drug are needed to have similar initial effect.
  • Withdrawal- symptoms like headache, nausea, irritability to pain, cramping and shaking occur due to the body's adjustments because of the absence of the drug.
  • Negative reinforcement- the tendency to continue a behavior that leads to the removal of unpleasant sensations.
  • Psychological dependence- the belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
  • Positive reinforcement- the tendency of behavior to strengthen when followed by a pleasurable consequences.
D.2. Major Drug Categories
    A. Stimulants- these are drugs that increase the function of the nervous system; causes the Sympathetic Nervous System to overdrive, also causes the reserve energy to burn up.
          1. Amphetamines- synthesized in the laboratory. This can cause amphetamine psychosis                             (condition that causes addicts to be delusional and paranoid).
          2. Methamphetamine- used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Narcolepsy
           3. Cocaine- natural drug derived from coca plant; produces euphoric feeling.
          4. Nicotine- a toxic stimulant that produces sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and heart                 acceleration; an ingredient in tobacco and a natural drug.
           5. Caffeine- a natural stimulant found in coffee; makes the user awake.

Source: http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/128/amphetamines8mw.jpg/sr=1
Figure 2. A Taunting Ad Relating to a Stimulant Amphetamine.

            As you can see in the ad, it says ''Sleep is for the weak''. As all other stimulants can, this amphetamine can make its user awake. Stimulant like this does not give its user an excessive amount of energy but in fact this stimulant burns the reserved energy and fats of the user. Thus giving heat, raised blood pressure and heart acceleration.

        B. Depressants- these are drugs that decrease the function of the nervous system.
            1. Barbiturates- known as the Major Tranquilizers, drugs that have sedative(sleep-inducing) effect.
            ***Drug interaction- interaction between two non-deadly drugs that then may cause death.                         (Example: Barbiturates + Alcohol = Death).
            2. Benzodiazepines- known as Minor Tranquilizers (has mild depressant effect), used to lower                         anxiety and reduce stress.
            ***Rohypnol- newer tranquilizer that has become famous as 'date rape' drug because when this                 drug is used to a a rape victim, she will not remember that she was raped.
            3. Alcohol- chemical resulting from fermentation.
               ***Binge drinking-excessive drinking for a limited amount of time.
          ***Korsakoff's Syndrome-form of dementia brought about by a severe vitamin B1 deficiency, caused by the alcoholic's tendency to drink rather than eat.
Source: http://jaysensi.wordpress.com/2010/03/06
Figure 3. Alcohol.

        Of all the depressants, alcohol is the most abused drug. It is also the most used of all of the psychoactive drugs. When drunk, some men who have two left feet would say that they can dance well. But this is because of the alcohol. Those users do not know that drinking alcohol makes them lose a bit of their muscle tone.

        C. Narcotics- painkilling depressant drugs derived from opium poppy; are class of drugs that suppress the sensation of pain.
            1. Opium- made from opium poppy, has a pain-relieving properties.
            2. Morphine- created by dissolving opium in an acid then neutralize by amonia.
            3. Heroin- derivative of morphine; more addicting than opium and morphine.
            4. Methadone- derivative of opium that is used to control the heroin dependency.
            5. Buprenorphine and naltrexone- also used to treat opiate addiction.

     D. Hallucinogens- drugs that alter perception and may cause hallucinations; can alter brain's interpretation of sensation such as synesthesia(crossing of sensations).
        ***Hallucinations-false sensory perception.
  • Manufactured Highs- drugs developed in the laboratory.
        a. Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD)- synthesized from ergot, a grain fungus. Most powerful hallucinogen.
        ***Stimulatory halluencinogics- drugs that can produce both stimulant and hallucinogenic effect.
        b. Phenyl cychohexyl piperidine / phenylcyclidine (PCP)- veterinary tranquilizer that can cause all psychoactive drug effect.
        c. Ecstacy / MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)- one property of this is that it dehydrates the body and increases body temperature.
  • Non-manufactured Highs- substances in nature that can produce hallucinogenic effect.
        a. Mescaline- derived from buttons found on the peyote cactus.
        b. Psilocybin- contained in mushroom, referred as 'magic mushroom'.
     c. Marijuana- most abused hallucinogenic drug; often called as 'pot' or 'weed'. This comes from Cannabis sativa. Marijuana is known for its ability to produce a feeling of mild intoxication and mild sensory distortions.
        ***Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- the active ingredient of marijuana.

  • Drug tolerance and withdrawal are 2 signs of physical dependency.
  • Compulsive use, loss of control, and disregard of consciousness are the 3 sign of cocaine abuse.
  • Marijuana is not physically addictive.