This post is under the process of referencing. 
Consciousness- a person's awareness of everything that is going on his surrounding which is used to organize behavior.

Waking consciousness- a person's thoughts, feelings and sensations are organized and clear. In waking   consciousness, one is said to be alert.

Altered state of consciousness- occurs when there is a shift in the quality of mental activity.



A.1. Terms/Concepts
  • Biological rhythms- natural cycles of activity that the body must go through.
  • Circadian rhythms- body rhythms that occur over a 24-hour period. (sleep-wake cycle)
  • Hypothalamus-controls the sleep-wake cycle; influences the glandular system.
  • Glandular system-is a communication network that regulates basic drives and emotions, promotes growth and sexual identity, controls body temperature, assists in the repair of broken tissue and helps generate energy.
  • Suprachiasmatic nucleus [SCN]- found in the hypothalamus that is sensitive to light. It tells the pineal gland when to produce melatonin. 
  • Pineal gland- an  endocrine gland found in vertebrates that is the source of melatonin. The pineal gland develops from the roof of the diencephalon, a section of the brain. In some lower vertebrates the gland has a well-developed eye-like structure; in others, though not organized as an eye, it functions as a light receptor. The technical term for this is epiphysis.
  • Pituitary gland- also referred to as the "master gland". It administers the functions of the endocrine system. The medical term for this is hypophysis.
  • Melatonin- a hormone derived from tryptophan that regulates circadian rhythm (sleep cycle) and is secreted by the pineal gland that tells people when to sleep. (↑- sleepy. ↓- awake).
  • Jet lag- a condition wherein the body's circadian rhythm is disrupted due to traveling into another time zone.
  • Serotonin- a neurotransmitter associated with sleepiness. (↑- intense feeling of sleepiness).
  • Body temperature- (↑- more active and awake, more alert. ↓- sleepier and less active).
  • Microsleeps- brief sleeps that can last for seconds.
  • Sleep deprivation- any significant loss of sleep that results to problems in concentration and irritability.
Figure 1. Medial View of the                    Brain.

    This figure shows the hypothalamus, SCN, pineal gland and the pituitary gland - all involved in the sleep-wake cycle.

A.2. Theories of Sleep
  • Adaptive Theory of Sleep- according to the evolutionary approach, animals and humans have evolved a sleeping pattern to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are active.
  • Restorative Theory of Sleep- states that sleep is needed to the physical health of the body wherein bodily damages are repaired when one is sleeping.
A.3. Kinds of Sleep
  • Rapid Eye Movement (REM Sleep)- active type of sleep wherein most dreams occur.
  • Non- Rapid Eye Movement (NREM Sleep)- deeper and more restful kind of sleep.
***Stages of NREM Sleep:

        Stage 1: Light Sleep- alpha wave activity fades and theta activity increases.
                * Hypnagogic images- vivid visual events or images that seems to be realistic but are most                     often seen as flashes of light.
                * Hypnopompic images- images seen as people are about to wake up.
                * Hypnic jerk- the "falling" sensation that one feels when one is in relaxed state of sleeping.

        Stage 2: Sleep Spindles- theta waves are dominant in this stage; this stage shows the first sign of             sleep spindles (can be seen in an EEG), brief burst of activity.
                * People who are awaken in this stage are aware that they have gone to sleep.

        Stage 3 and 4: Delta Waves- delta waves make up 20-50% of brain wave pattern; if the delta waves             become more than 50% then it is the stage 4 of NREM sleep. In stage 4, the person is hard to                 awaken.
                * Electroencephalograph [EEG]- a machine that allows a scientist to see the brain wave                         activity;determines what type of sleep the person has entered.
               * Beta waves- a wave pattern shown when a person is wide awake and mentally active; very                     small and very fast waves.
               * Alpha waves- a wave pattern that indicates drowsiness; these waves are slightly larger and                     slower than Beta waves.
                * Theta waves-replace the alpha waves; much slower and larger than alpha waves.
                * Delta waves- slowest and largest wave; shown when the person is in deepest sleep.
               * REM Paralysis- a condition wherein the voluntary muscles are paralyzed during REM sleep                     making the body unable to react on dreams.
                * REM Rebound-an increased amount of REM sleep for the next night due to deprived sleep                     the night before.

A.4. Sleep Disorders
  • Nightmares- bad dreams that occur during REM sleep.
  • REM Behavior Disorder- a serious condition wherein a person would act out his nightmares; happens due to failure of the brain to inhibit voluntary muscles.
  • Somnambulism / Sleepwalking- a person acts out an episode of his dream probably a walking or moving around episode of his dream.
  • Night terrors- panic experience while sound asleep, accompanied by moveents thus somewhat occur in NREM sleep.
  • Insomnia- the inability to sleep, stay asleep or get a good sleep.
  • Sleep Apnea- a person stops breathing for a bout a minute or two.
  • Narcolepsy- a disorder which makes a person fall into REM sleep without warning or drowsiness.
  • Hypersomnia- excessive day sleep.
  • Enuresis-urinating while asleep.
  • Cataplexy- sudden loss of muscle tone.
  • Restless leg syndrome- painful cramps in calf or foot muscles.
  • Circadian rhythm disorders- disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle such as jet lag and shift of work.
     Below is a video of a puppy having a night terror. As you know, animals, not only humans have the capability to undergone things like the different sleep disorders. An organism experiencing a night terror usually screams, panics, a sometimes run around the house. In humans, babies are often subjected to this disorder due to the growth and development of certain brain structures and neuronal myelinization (the process of coating the neurons axon with myelin sheath).

B.1.Terms /  Concepts
     According to Sigmund Freud, known as the Father of Psychoanalysis, the content or meaning of dreams are classified into two:
  • Manifest content of dream- this is the actual dream itself. It has no other meaning aside from what he person saw in his dream. Regardless of what he wants / thinks in reality.
  • Latent content of dream- this is the hidden or symbolic meaning of the dream. (Ex. A person dreams about having sex with the person he / she hated the most. Freud's explanation to this is that the person who dreamed about it must have hated the person for so long and and scene of having sex with the hated person implies that the only thing to make the person befriend with the hated one is through an intimate relation so that their relation wouldn't be broken.)
B.2. Dream Theories
  • Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis- a dream theory which states that dreams are simply the brain's way of explaining random neural activity while sleeping. According to this, when one is asleep, brain signals are random yet the brain interprets theses signals. Also, the frontal lobes, responsible in the voluntary movements, are shut down during dreaming. Hence, some of the dreams are thereby acted as said in the sleep disorders. Signals coming from the pons are sent to the cortex which interprets the signals as dreams.
  • Activation-Information-Mode-Model (AIM)- says that the information accessed during waking hours can have an influence on the synthesis of dreams.

C.1.Terms /  Concepts
  • Hypnosis- a state of consciousness wherein the person is susceptible to suggestion.
  • Hypnotic susceptibility- the degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject, often makes use of series of ordered suggestions.
  • Basic suggestion effect- the tendency to act as though their behavior is automatic and out of their control.
C.2. Theories of Hypnosis
  • Dissociation- splitting of conscious awareness; one part of mind is aware of actions taking place and the other is not.
  • Social-Cognitive Theory- assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them.
     - putting a person to sleep does not induce hypnosis
     - hypnosis has been successfully used to reduce sensation and pain
     - hypnosis can create amnesia for whatever happens during the hypnotic session, at least for a short time.
     - hypnosis can relieve pain by allowing a person to remove conscious attention from the pain
     - hypnosis can alter sensory perceptions


D.1. Terms /  Concepts
  • Psychoactive drugs- these are drugs that can alter thinking, perception, memory, or combination of those abilities.
  • Drug tolerance- the continued use of drug, larger and larger doses of the drug are needed to have similar initial effect.
  • Withdrawal- symptoms like headache, nausea, irritability to pain, cramping and shaking occur due to the body's adjustments because of the absence of the drug.
  • Negative reinforcement- the tendency to continue a behavior that leads to the removal of unpleasant sensations.
  • Psychological dependence- the belief that the drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well-being.
  • Positive reinforcement- the tendency of behavior to strengthen when followed by a pleasurable consequences.
D.2. Major Drug Categories
    A. Stimulants- these are drugs that increase the function of the nervous system; causes the Sympathetic Nervous System to overdrive, also causes the reserve energy to burn up.
          1. Amphetamines- synthesized in the laboratory. This can cause amphetamine psychosis                             (condition that causes addicts to be delusional and paranoid).
          2. Methamphetamine- used to treat Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Narcolepsy
           3. Cocaine- natural drug derived from coca plant; produces euphoric feeling.
          4. Nicotine- a toxic stimulant that produces sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and heart                 acceleration; an ingredient in tobacco and a natural drug.
           5. Caffeine- a natural stimulant found in coffee; makes the user awake.

Figure 2. A Taunting Ad Relating to a Stimulant Amphetamine.

            As you can see in the ad, it says ''Sleep is for the weak''. As all other stimulants can, this amphetamine can make its user awake. Stimulant like this does not give its user an excessive amount of energy but in fact this stimulant burns the reserved energy and fats of the user. Thus giving heat, raised blood pressure and heart acceleration.

        B. Depressants- these are drugs that decrease the function of the nervous system.
            1. Barbiturates- known as the Major Tranquilizers, drugs that have sedative(sleep-inducing) effect.
            ***Drug interaction- interaction between two non-deadly drugs that then may cause death.                         (Example: Barbiturates + Alcohol = Death).
            2. Benzodiazepines- known as Minor Tranquilizers (has mild depressant effect), used to lower                         anxiety and reduce stress.
            ***Rohypnol- newer tranquilizer that has become famous as 'date rape' drug because when this                 drug is used to a a rape victim, she will not remember that she was raped.
            3. Alcohol- chemical resulting from fermentation.
               ***Binge drinking-excessive drinking for a limited amount of time.
          ***Korsakoff's Syndrome-form of dementia brought about by a severe vitamin B1 deficiency, caused by the alcoholic's tendency to drink rather than eat.
Figure 3. Alcohol.

        Of all the depressants, alcohol is the most abused drug. It is also the most used of all of the psychoactive drugs. When drunk, some men who have two left feet would say that they can dance well. But this is because of the alcohol. Those users do not know that drinking alcohol makes them lose a bit of their muscle tone.

        C. Narcotics- painkilling depressant drugs derived from opium poppy; are class of drugs that suppress the sensation of pain.
            1. Opium- made from opium poppy, has a pain-relieving properties.
            2. Morphine- created by dissolving opium in an acid then neutralize by amonia.
            3. Heroin- derivative of morphine; more addicting than opium and morphine.
            4. Methadone- derivative of opium that is used to control the heroin dependency.
            5. Buprenorphine and naltrexone- also used to treat opiate addiction.

     D. Hallucinogens- drugs that alter perception and may cause hallucinations; can alter brain's interpretation of sensation such as synesthesia(crossing of sensations).
        ***Hallucinations-false sensory perception.
  • Manufactured Highs- drugs developed in the laboratory.
        a. Lysergic acid Diethylamide (LSD)- synthesized from ergot, a grain fungus. Most powerful hallucinogen.
        ***Stimulatory halluencinogics- drugs that can produce both stimulant and hallucinogenic effect.
        b. Phenyl cychohexyl piperidine / phenylcyclidine (PCP)- veterinary tranquilizer that can cause all psychoactive drug effect.
        c. Ecstacy / MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine)- one property of this is that it dehydrates the body and increases body temperature.
  • Non-manufactured Highs- substances in nature that can produce hallucinogenic effect.
        a. Mescaline- derived from buttons found on the peyote cactus.
        b. Psilocybin- contained in mushroom, referred as 'magic mushroom'.
     c. Marijuana- most abused hallucinogenic drug; often called as 'pot' or 'weed'. This comes from Cannabis sativa. Marijuana is known for its ability to produce a feeling of mild intoxication and mild sensory distortions.
        ***Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)- the active ingredient of marijuana.

  • Drug tolerance and withdrawal are 2 signs of physical dependency.
  • Compulsive use, loss of control, and disregard of consciousness are the 3 sign of cocaine abuse.
  • Marijuana is not physically addictive.

12/30/2011 03:06:31 pm

THX for info

1/16/2012 08:47:20 am

Welcome Chris. :)


Thank you for information

3/21/2012 06:31:56 am

Great info, thx

3/26/2012 09:02:57 am

THX for info

5/20/2012 05:26:00 pm

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7/23/2012 05:26:24 am

I feel like I am in love.. It has nothing to do with this post but just.. Wanted to share :D

8/15/2012 09:22:11 pm

thank you.. :D

4/29/2016 10:33:01 pm

I will be posting a reflection on a word and today's word is "Sleep".

6/7/2016 03:57:23 am

There are many people who have entered my life today in sobriety. And I am beyond grateful for them. They have saved me.


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