A.      Disorders of Sensation and Perception
1.      Sensory Disorders – disorders that affect the sentient cognitive processes
     a)   Anaesthesia/ Anesthesia – loss of sensitivity that may either be due to a psychological or psychogenic cause.
Ex. Glove/ stocking anaesthesia – only specific parts of the body have anaesthesia, in this case in the hands and in the legs respectively.
     b)   Hyperesthesia – increased or higher than normal sensitivity
     c)   Hypoesthesia – decreased sensitivity
     d)   Paraesthesia – false/ perverted sensitivity

2.      Perception Disorders – perception is sensation + meaning; any perceptual disturbance will cause an abnormality in the interpretation of sensed sensory stimuli.
     a)   Illusion – perceptual disturbance in the presence of stimulus; a distortion of perception and an erroneous interpretation of present stimulus
  • Normal Illusion – this type of illusion is normal when everyone can sense the stimulus.
Ex. Optical illusions are illusions that involve vision (Reber et al., 2009).
NOTE: Epicritic/ Discriminative sensibility – ability of locating stimuli that are applied on the body; this ability is normal to everyone.

  • Abnormal Illusion – an illusion is abnormal when not everybody can experience the illusion
·         Allochiria – wrong perception of stimuli or there is a displaced sensation.
·         Dyschiria – difficulty in localizing stimulus applied in the body.

     b)   Hallucination – the perceptual distortion in the absence of the stimulus.
     c)   Agnosia – the patient appears to be confused that he cannot see meaning or cannot identify and recognize the stimuli acting on the senses. 





Reference:
Reber, A. S., Allen, R., & Reber, E. S. (2009). Penguin dictionary of psychology. (4th ed.). London, England: Penguin Books   Ltd.


 
THE SYMPTOMATOLOGY OF MENTAL DISORDERS
Compiled by Paul John P. Lanic
BS Psychology - University of Santo Tomas
(August 2012)



Overview:
            Before one can identify and diagnose a patient with criterion-based findings, a student undertaking psychology must be well equipped so that erroneous interpretations of behavior and underlying mechanisms may be avoided. Discussed here are the common symptoms of mental disorders categorized into 6: Disorders of sensation and perception, intelligence and thought, emotion, speech and verbal behavior, motor behavior, and motivation.



Basic concepts:
  • Signs – these are objective findings/evaluations of a clinician
  • Symptoms – subjective reports of experiences by the patient

            2 types of symptom:
1.      Ego-dystonic – these are symptoms that cause difficulty in the patient and that these are unwelcomed/ unacceptable for the patient
Ex. Dysphagia – difficulty in swallowing).

2.      Ego-syntonic – these are symptoms that are acceptable with the patient
Ex. For persons with Personality Disorder, they manifest disordered behavior because they are satisfying for the person thus that particular behavior becomes enduring and pervasive.

*** Syndromes – group of signs and symptoms that occur together as a recognized condition


Categories of Symptoms
A. Disorders of Sensation and Perception
B. Disorders of Intelligence and Thought
C. Disorders of Emotion
D. Disorders of Speech and Verbal Behavior
E. Disorders of Motor Behavior
F. Disorders of Motivation