Prepared by Paul John P. Lanic
B.S. Psychology - University of Santo Tomas
(October 2011) 






WHAT IS LEARNING?
  •          It refers to the relatively permanent change in behavior or behavior potentiality as a result of reinforced practice or experience (Kimble, 1961).
  • (“relatively” here means that behavior can be changed or modified whenever there is a need).
  •          It was brought about by experience provided that the change cannot be explained on the basis of a simpler cause (ex: native response tendencies, maturation or temporary state such as fatigue and drugs).
  •          Learning is a result of experience or practice.

LEARNING AND PERFORMANCE
  •          Learning refers to the change in behavior potentiality.
  •          Performance refers to the translation of this potentiality into behavior.

TYPES OF LEARNING

1.       Rote learning – is learning without understanding. This type of learning is not effective in behavior because things learned through rote cannot be put into performance.
2.       Rational learning – opposite of rote learning; it is learning with understanding.
3.       Motor learning – the adaptation of movement to stimuli relating to speed and precision of performance.
4.       Associational learning– is learning through establishing relationships. This type of learning involves the development of Associate Pattern (ex: EDSA Revolution and People Power).
5.       Appreciational learning – is the process of acquiring attitudes, ideas, satisfaction and judgment concerning values as well as the recognition of worth and importance which learners gain from activities. This type of learning is a product of appreciation.
                                        “When you appreciate, you imitate.”

THE LEARNING CURVE

                The learning curve is the manifestation of the direction of learning. It is defined as the graphical representation of learning and it gauges how much or how little learning has taken place.

* A PLATEAU in the learning curve signifies no change in the rate of learning or the learner has reached his or her physiological or psychological limit.

DIRECTIONS OF LEARNING

1.       Positive – increased in the rate of change or growth.
2.       Negative– decreased in the rate of change or growth.


ADAPTATION
                It is the structured functional change that enhances the organism’s survival values. Adaptation also involves the elimination of emotional and other behaviors during the early stages of learning.

FUNDAMENTAL CONDITIONS OF LEARNING
  •          indexed change in behavior
  •          behavior change is relatively permanent
  •          the change in behavior need not occur immediately

PROCEDURE IN MODIFYING BEHAVIOR
Conditioning – involves forming association between the stimulus and a response.

Classical Conditioning – is the process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
1.       Recency – the most recent impression or association is more likely to be recalled.
2.       Frequency – knowledge encountered most often is most likely to be recalled.
3.       Vividness – learning is proportional to vividness or clearness of the process.
4.       Exercise – using what has learned will help its likelihood to be recalled.
5.       Readiness – readiness to learn is proportional to the efficiency of learning.

FUNDAMENTAL EQUIPMENTS OF A LEARNER
1.       Intelligence
2.       Sensation
3.       Perception – process where sensations are interpreted.
4.      Imagination – an unconscious retention of images that supplies the basis for memorial activity. It is a powerful internal activity that involves representing in the mind an absent stimulus or object. The product of this process is the image.

     *Imagination can be voluntary (with desire to imagine) or spontaneous (without desire to imagine).

THE TRANSFER OF LEARNING
                The application of methods, skills, thinking, values and habits learned in one situation can be used to another situation or life events.

KINDS OF TRANSFER
Ψ     Positive Transfer– learning in one subject, task or situation improves or facilitates performance in the second subject or situation.
Ψ     Negative Transfer – learning interferes or retards, or is detrimental to another situation when transferred. 
Ψ     Zero Transfer– learning that produces no observable influence or change in the efficiency of the second subject or situation.

EXPERIMENTAL BASES ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING
o   Garrison, Kingston & Macdonald (1964)
         The amount and quality of transfer will depend upon: 
                Ø  similarity of concept
                Ø  appropriateness of the methods of instruction or guidance
                Ø  ability of the learner to generalize
                Ø  learner’s intelligence
                Ø  attitude or mental set up of the learner towards learning a task
                Ø  desirable learning procedures

o   Ulmer (1939)
         Geometry taught by emphasizing the application of principles to non-geometric situations marked a gain on general reasoning tests.

o   Katona (1940)
         Emphasized a generalization on rote learning:
                Ø  Advantage of learning with understanding does not necessarily appear in the original learning because it may take a longer time than rote learning. 
                Ø  Retention after a meaningful learning tends to be greater.
                Ø  Transfer of learning to new tasks is greater for a meaningful learning as compared to rote learning.

o   Hilgard et al. (1953)
         Experiment with 60 high school students to test Katona’s generalization.
         Students who learn by understanding would retain more than those who learn by rote.
         Thus understanding is superior to rote memorization in learning for transfer.

o   Skinner (1958)
         Attitude may reinforce incidental learning initially occurring without intent on the part of the person to consciously master the task.


THEORIES ON TRANSFER OF LEARNING

Ψ     Theory of Identical Elements
                 Ø  Factors of resemblance or similarity between situations have considerable effect upon the amount of kind of carryover that can be expected from one situation to another.
                 Ø  Edward Lee Thorndike: Transfer depends upon the presence in both situations certain identical elements of content, attitude, method or aim. 

Ψ     Theory of Generalization
                 Ø  Skills, facts and habits must be systematized and related to other situation in which they can be utilized.
                 Ø  Charles Judd: Transfer as synonymous with ability to understand and to apply broad principles to specific situation.

Ψ     Hartshorne & May (1928)
                 Ø  Abstract concepts like ‘justice’ & ‘honesty’ are more readily transferred if they are learned meaningfully.
                 Ø  Thus, the transfer of conceptual learning is enhanced by ways of learning which make a meaningful and significant to the students.





Leave a Reply.